未分類

悪臭について

悪臭

不快な匂い=悪臭という認識でOKですが、どういったものなのかを具体的に話していきます。

そもそも悪臭とは?

結論から言うと人間の嗅覚に直接働きかけ、生活環境を損なう恐れがあるものです。

悪臭にはその匂いそのものが人間の体にダメージを与えるものや、気分を害する程度のものなど幅広い。

例えば食べ物が腐った匂いや化学工場の有機溶媒などが該当します。

悪臭と法律の制度

この記事を見ている方は悪臭防止法という法律をご存知でしょうか?

簡単に言ってしまえば工場とかで出てしまう臭いをなるべく出さないようにして生活環境を守って下さいね。という法律。

以下環境省の悪臭防止法のページより抜粋。

悪臭防止法の概要

1 目的

悪臭防止法は、規制地域内の工場・事業場の事業活動に伴って発生する悪臭について必要な規制を行うこと等により生活環境を保全し、国民の健康の保護に資することを目的とする。

2 特定悪臭物質及び臭気指数

排出規制の対象とするのは、次の特定悪臭物質及び臭気指数についてである。

  1. 特定悪臭物質とは、不快なにおいの原因となり、生活環境を損なうおそれのある物質であって政令で指定するもの。(現在22物質が指定されている。)
  2. 臭気指数とは、人間の嗅覚によってにおいの程度を数値化したもの。

3 規制地域

都道府県知事(市の区域内の地域については、市長)は、住民の生活環境を保全するため悪臭を防止する必要があると認める地域を指定しなければならない。

4 規制基準

都道府県知事(市の区域内の地域については、市長)は、規制地域における自然的、社会的条件を考慮して、特定悪臭物質又は臭気指数の規制基準を定める。規制基準は敷地境界線、気体排出口、排出水について定める。

5 改善勧告等の行政措置

市町村長は、事業場において規制基準に適合せず、住民の生活環境が損なわれていると認める場合、改善勧告・改善命令を行うことができる。

6 事故時の措置

規制地域内の事業場設置者は、悪臭を伴う事故の発生があった場合、直ちに市町村長に通報し、応急措置を講じる等の義務がある。また、市町村長は事故時の状況に応じ応急措置命令を発することができる。

7 悪臭の測定

市町村長は、規制地域における大気中の特定悪臭物質の濃度又は大気の臭気指数について必要な測定を行わなければならない。

8 測定の委託

市町村長は、臭気指数等に係る測定の業務を、一定の知識及び適性を有する臭気測定業務従事者等に委託できる。

引用元⇒こちら

悪臭防止法の歴史

この法律が施行されたのは1972年(昭和47年度)で、そこをピークに減少を続けていました。

この悪臭苦情件数の減少は悪臭防止法が施行された事によって減ったことが伺えますね。

しかし1994年(平成6年以降)からは上昇傾向。

1998年度以降(平成10年度以降)1999年度以外は毎年二万件を超えるという状況に。※引用元1

ここで興味深いのは2003年(平成15年度)に24587あった苦情件数が急激に減って2020年(令和3年)に12020まで減りました。※引用元2

1972年以降の主な臭いの原因は製造業や農畜産業など大型発生源に対して効果が大きかったのです。

その後1994年以降の苦情は野外焼却、サービス業、その他に分類されるものが大幅に増加したことが原因。

つまり昨今の悪臭事情は製造業や農畜産業よりもより身近な都市型、生活型と呼ばれる型にシフトしていったのです。

悪臭の発生場所

悪臭の発生原因は多く、以下の場所に発生する。

居間
人体臭
⇒体臭、口臭
・建材臭、カーペット臭
⇒接着剤、溶剤
・空調臭、ストーブ臭
⇒灯油、燃焼ガス、カビ
・タバコ臭
⇒タバコの煙、吸い殻
・ペット臭
⇒ペットの体臭、糞尿

タンス
・体臭、衣装臭
⇒体臭、染料

トイレ
・糞尿臭
⇒排便、排尿

台所
・調理臭
⇒食品の加熱加工
・材料臭
⇒生鮮品、スパイスなど
・生ゴミ臭
⇒ゴミの腐敗
・排水臭
⇒下水の腐敗

冷蔵庫
・冷蔵庫臭
⇒魚、肉、野菜、調理品など

風呂場
・老廃物臭
⇒汗、ホコリ
・排水臭
⇒下水の腐敗
・カビ臭
⇒カビ

下駄箱
・足の臭い
⇒土、カビ、細菌、体臭

寝室
・人体臭、衣類臭
⇒体臭(汗)、染料

日本の住宅は古来木造だったため通気性が良く、臭いの原因といえばトイレが多かったです。

しかし戦後の経済復興の影響で人口の集中人口の過密化が進みました。するとコンクリートでできた集合住宅がそびえ立つように。

結果、通気性の悪い建造物が作られたため気にならなかった生ゴミ臭カビ臭などが臭気として変わっていったのでした。

ちなみに1991年の意識調査による気になる屋内臭気ベスト10は以下のとおり。

  1. トイレ
  2. 生ゴミ臭
  3. 調理臭
  4. 排水臭
  5. カビ臭
  6. 下駄箱
  7. 壁臭
  8. タバコ臭
  9. エアコンからの臭気
  10. ペット臭

悪臭の成分

ニオイ物質は良いも悪いの区別がなく、同じ匂い物質でも状況によって変化する。

例えば臭気物質の代表“硫化水素”はドブ川の臭いと表現される。しかし温泉街に行くと心安らぐ香りに。

悪臭防止法では1972年に特に有害とする「特定悪臭物質」を順次指定し、現在では22種の物質が選ばれている。

1972年(昭和47)年指定
・硫化水素
・アンモニア
・硫化メチル
・メチルカプタン
・トリメチルアミン

1976年(昭和51)年指定
・スチレン
・二硫化エチル
・アセトアルデヒド

1989(平成元)年指定
・n-酪酸
・イソ吉草酸
・n-吉草酸酸

1993(平成5)年指定
・トルエン
・キシレン
・酢酸エチル
・イソブタノール
・n-バレルアルデヒド
・n-ブチルアルデヒド
・プロピオンアルデヒド
・イソブチルアルデヒド
・イソブバレルアルデヒド
・メチルイソブチルケトン

以上の物質が法律で規制されていますが、混ざっていることが多く挙げたもの以外も悪臭物質とすることもあるのです。

そのため1995年以降の悪臭防止法では官能評価による規制が取り入れられています。

植物の悪臭

身の回りにある植物は香りを発して心地よさを感じさせています。

ですが中には悪臭を放つ花も存在し、1200種の花をつける植物の内臭いがしない品種が1/3、5%は悪臭がする植物であるという調査もありました。

一般的なものはクサギ Clerodendron trichotomum、薬品のようなフェノール臭がするセイヨウナツユキソウ Filipenduka ulmariaなど。

中でも有名なのは世界一大きな花で知られるラフレシア・アーノルディー Rafflesia arnoldii。

腐肉のような臭いでハエをおびき寄せて受粉させることが知られています。

個人的には臭い植物といったら“ショクダイオオコンニャク”の花で、生ゴミの腐った臭いと下水管から漂うあの臭いが合わさった臭いでした。

悪臭
まとめ

悪臭とは生活環境に影響を及ぼす臭いのこと。

法律では22種が悪臭の原因として規制されていますが、実際は混ざっていることが殆ど。

かつては木造で通気性が良かったため臭いはそこ迄深刻ではなかった。

ですが戦後の復興でコンクリート造りの住居が増えて通気性が悪くなったため臭気が出てきた。

植物の中には腐敗臭によって花粉を媒介するという戦略をとったものも存在する。

いつも読んでくださる人たちへ

今日まで書き続けることができたのは読んでくださっている人のおかげです。これからも更新を続けるのでどうか応援して下さると嬉しいです。

宣伝

Twitter開設しました。フォローするとこのブログの最新情報とハーブの知識を得ることができます。

@けむさん
今回の記事はここまでとなります。また次回の記事でお会いしましょう。

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